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What are violations of human rights?

What can we, as individuals, do to bring attention to one of these violations?




Learning Intention:

We are learning to identify Child labour issues and find out how we, as individuals, bring attention to these issues and help improve them.

Success Criteria:

We will know we have achieved this when we are able to identify Child labour issues and are helping bring attention to these issues and improving them.



Brainstorm - decision of topic :

We have made a brainstorm, to help us find a topic we are interested in, that is a violation of human rights.

The topic we have chosen is child labour because we feel that there are lots of issues with children and there rights. We also think there are a lot of places where Child labour is happening and we need to help put a stop to it. New Zealanders do help encourage child labour because we buy things from stores that are imported and made by children in another country.


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Questions:

1. What organizations in New Zealand are trying to prevent child labour and How?

2. What country is child labour most common?

3. What are the consequence's of child labour?

4. Explain in detail what child labour is?

5. How is NEW ZEALAND trying to stop people buying things that are made by child labour?


Hypothesis:

1. World vision, Global March and Trade Aid, are all organizations that are funding projects to help prevent Child Labour and they are also charities.

2. Africa, Iraq & Iran because they are big countries that are poor and don't have many workers.

3. Child Labour effects the children's health and socialization as well as there physical and emotional wellbeing.

4. Child labour is when a child works long hours but doesn't get paid a fair amount for the work that they have done.

5. Trade Aid was asking people to sign a petition to say they don't want things imported to New Zealand that is made by child labour.


Research - Note-taking, Note-making and Bullet Points:

Q1-What organizations in New Zealand are trying to prevent child labour and How?:

Trade Aid:
  • help communities that are affected by poverty
  • gives parents fair wages which makes it so there is no need for the children to work.
  • Left over money helps them with their health.
  • Prevents parents from selling their children (trafficking).
World Vision:
  • 40-hour famine
  • The website shows most information: www.worldvision.org.nz
Child Fund:
  • Through sponsoring a child - money goes to help the company so they can help child labour
Unicef:
  • Un-formal education – learning in your own time.
  • Talk to the governments and tries to persuade governments to make child labour Illegal
  • Give money to communities and get people to try and become teachers/students
  • They stop people from smuggling the kids from one border to the other.
  • They give them basic needs
Save the Children:
  • Primary school education
  • Whole communities
  • Building schools
  • Africa
  • A child with primary education can earn 5 times as much as an adult without eduction

Q2-What country is child labour most common?:

61% In Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America, 1% in the US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin America 17% of the workforce is children. The proportion of child labourers varies a lot amoung countries and even regions inside those countries.

Q3-What are the consequence's of child labour?:

  • At cocoa and corn plantations in southern Ivory Coast, children work long hours under severe conditions. It's difficult to tell if the children have been abducted and forced into labour.
  • Many say they have come from Burkino Faso – one of the poorest countries in West Africa – to the more affluent Ivory Coast for a better life.
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** Physical injuries and mutilations are caused by badly maintained machinery on farms and in factories, machete accidents in plantations, and any number of hazards encountered in industries such as mining, ceramics and fireworks manufacture
    • Pesticide poisoning is one of the biggest killers of child labourers. In Sri Lanka, pesticides kill more children than diphtheria, malaria, polio and tetanus combined. The global death toll each year from pesticides is supposed to be approximately 40'000
    • Growth deficiency is prevalent among working children, who tend to be shorter and lighter than other children; these deficiencies also impact on their adult life
    • Long-term health problems, such as respiratory disease, asbestosis and a variety of cancers, are common in countries where children are forced to work with dangerous chemicals
    • HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases are rife among the one million children forced into prostitution every year; pregnancy, drug addiction and mental illness are also common among child prostitutes
    • Exhaustion and malnutrition are a result of underdeveloped children performing heavy manual labour, working long hours in unbearable conditions and not earning enough to feed themselves adequately

Q4-Explain in detail what child labour is?:

  • Child labour is where you are forced to work under threat of violence and have restrictions on their freedom
  • Child labour is where children are harmed in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking access to education).
  • Child labour is work undertaken by a child that is harmful to them in some way. The labour could be harmful by making them sick, stopping them from getting an education or damaging them emotionally. It is unlikely for a child who lives in New Zealand and works for an hour after school delivering leaflets to be called a child labourer as the work is not harmful.

Q5-How is NEW ZEALAND trying to stop people buying things that are made by child labour?:

  • Trade Aid is doing a petition to make NZ government to recognize that use of slave labour in products that enter NZ should be illegal, and also to make a law that bans the use of slave labour in the supply chains of products we use and consume.

Answers to questions:

1. There are many organizations in New Zealand that help prevent child labour such as, Trade Aid, World Vision, Child Fund, Unicef and Save the children. All of these organizations make a difference in the world and especially to child labourers. Trade Aid helps communities that are affected by poverty and gives parents fair wages which makes it so there is no need to sell their children or for their children to work. Left over money helps keep them healthy. Unicef has talks to governments of countries they are concerned about, and tries to persuade them to make child labour illegal. They also give money to communities and get people to try and become teachers/students for the local schools and give all children the basic needs in life. Save the children works on building schools for the children and their communities in Africa.

2. 218 million children aged between 5-17 are in child labour world wide, no including children in labour domestically. Child Labour has been world wide for centuries, laws were passed in industrialized countries to prohibit child labour. The demand for educated and literate adults, in western countries was brought by an increasing technological updating of their industries. Poor countries with poor families still today rely on their children s their only source of income.

3. There are many different consequences to child labour. one of them being physical injuries caused by different machinery and hazards in different plantations and farms. There is also consequences like poisons and pesticides. These consequences kill more child labour sufferers than diphtheria, malaria, polio and tetanus combined! Others are growth difficulties, long term health problems and HIV/AIDS.

4. Child Labour is where a child spends too many hours working and being under-payed. Children are sometimes dangerous and huge responsibilities sometimes causes stress for some as young as 5 years old. children get beaten, abused, hurt and have no access to education. Child labourers do not pay the children, instead they will threaten them to work, and will limit their freedom.

5. New Zealand is doing nothing to stop people buying things made by child labour. Labeling of products in new Zealand does not show it's country of origin and people cannot easily find out whether child labour has been used to produce their products. Trade Aid is realizing that this is happening and taking a stand for it. they have released a petition to ask the NZ government to make it illegal for New Zealand to import things that use slave/child labour in it's products.

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Deeper study:

We talked to a lady who works at Trade Aid Botany, and asked her this question: What countries export things to NZ made by child or slave labour? She said that in India and Nepal children make carpet, in Pakistan children make soccer balls, in Bangladesh children make sports clothing, in Ivory Coast children make cocoa, and Nestle uses cocoa made by child and slave labour All of these things are exported to New Zealand and citizens buy these without even knowing .

We're going to study cocoa made by child labour because we feel that companies are using the cocoa made by child slaves and benefiting from it when they shouldn't. We also feel we should be warned that certain companies are using cocoa made by slaves and child labour. Many things are made out of cocoa in the world and just how many people actually know that?


In depth Questions:

6. What companies use cocoa made by child/slave labour?

7. What countries make cocoa through child labour?


Hypothesis for in depth Questions

6. Nestle' uses cocoa in their chocolate

7. The Ivory coast makes cocoa through child labour and sells this to companies


Note-Taking

Q6 - What companies use cocoa made by child/slave labour?

  • Just In Time for Valentine’s Day: Nestle Taken to Court for Trafficking, Torture, and Beatings of Child Labourers on West African Cocoa Farms
Human rights groups have long criticized the chocolate industry for failing to stop illegal child labour, including child slavery, on West African cocoa farms, but this is the first time the issue is going to court. The charges against the companies include trafficking, torture, and forced labour of children who cultivate and harvest cocoa beans, which the companies import from Africa.
Nestle and Child Labour
Nestlé’s Golden Ticket competition is making dreams come true for five lucky children in New Zealand, but the sweet front of the chocolate industry conceals a nightmarish reality for millions of children in West Africa. While Nestlé take advantage of the forthcoming New Zealand release of the movie, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, a US lawsuit has been filed alleging Nestlé’s involvement in the trafficking, torture and forced labour of children who cultivate and harvest the cocoa that Nestlé imports from West Africa.
  • A Human Rights organization took Nestle, Archer, Daniels Midland, and Cargill to the Federal District Court in Los Angeles because of the use of trafficking, torture, and forced labour of children.

Q7- What countries make cocoa through child labour?

  • West & Central Africa
  • Ivory coast

Answers to in depth questions:

6. Nestle', Archer, Daniels Midland, and Cargill all use cocoa made by child labour. These companies were taken to the Federal District Court in Los Angeles because of the use trafficking torture and forced labour. These seem to be the only companies that use child labour right now, but some companies may start using child labour in the future. Some people may import cocoa, and not knowingly import cocoa made by child labour.

7. The Ivory coast produces half of the worlds cocoa and Ghana isn't far behind. Other countries in west and Central Africa make cocoa through child labour as well.


Call of Action:

A positive way to make a change/difference.

  1. People can try not to buy nestle products
  2. If you want to make child labour imports in New Zealand illegal you can Sign the stop slavery petition
  3. Buy trade aid products, which are child labour free guaranteed


Interesting Facts:

  • A child with primary education can earn 5 times as much as an adult without education.
  • 246 million children are child labourers
  • 73 million working children are less than 10 years old
  • Every year 22 000 children die in work-related accidents
  • 5.7 million children are forced into debt-bondage or other forms of slavery
  • The largest number of working children are in the Asia-Pacific region
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest proportion of working children - nearly one-third of children aged 14 and under
  • Most children work in the informal sector (ie. in homes or on the streets) without any legal protection
  • 70% work in agriculture, commercial hunting and fishing or forestry
  • 8% work in manufacturing
  • 8% in wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels
  • 7% in community, social and personal service, such as domestic work.
  • Ivory Coast alone has up to 15,000 children working in the country's plantations.

Reflection:





Bibliography

Trade Aid - Fact sheet - used for question 4
Unicef - What is child labour - used for question 4
Child Labour - used for question 4
Trade Aid - Child Labour and Chocolate - used for in depth questions